Interspecific Interactions

Effect on organism 2
Harm Benefit No effect
Effect on organism 1 Harm Competition (−/−) Predation or parasitism (−/+)
Benefit Predation or parasitism (+/−) Mutualism (+/+) Commensalism (+/0)
No effect Commensalism (0/+)

The Ecological Niche Concept

Fundamental Niche versus Realized Niche

Joseph Connell's Famous Experiments

Shows the normal setup of the two barnacle species in Connell's experiments, as well as their respective fundamental and realized niches.

Figure 53.13, page 1117, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Competition: The Competitive Exclusion Principle

Graphs the population growth/decline of the two paramecia cultures, first separately and then together.

Figure 53.10, page 1115, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Resource Partitioning

Shows the resource partitioning of the five warbler species.

Unknown source

Character Displacement

Shows how sympatric populations of two Galápagos finches have much more divergent beak depth distributions than allopatric ones, as explained by character displacement.

Figure 53.12, page 1117, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Interspecific Interactions and Community Structure

Robert Paine's Experiment

Graphs the number of species present with the sea star present and removed. Shows a "before and after" comparison of the intertidal community.

Figure 53.16(b), page 1119, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition; unknown source

Keystone Species

Shows a "before and after" comparison of the reef environment.

Unknown source