Gas Exchange: Reviewing the Basics

Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP4-
Energy in one form Energy in another form
A summary of cellular respiration, the process of energy conversion for which respiration works.

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Gas Exchange in Animals: Overview

Shows the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout a schematic animal.

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How Gases Move Across Membranes

Shows the two systems for increasing gas exchange surface area: gills and the lungs and tracheae.

Figure 48.3, Purves's Life: The Science of Biology, 7th Edition

Fish Use Gills to Increase Surface Area

Shows how gills are integrated into a fish. Contrasts concurrent and countercurrent flow over gills.

Figures 42.19 and 42.20, pages 828 and 829, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Insects Use a Tracheal System

Shows the tracheal system of insects, zooming in on a spiracle.

Figure 42.21, page 829, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Birds Have One-way Lungs

Shows the inhalation and exhalation of birds, diagramming the interaction of their air sacs and lungs.

Figure 42.24, page 832, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

The Mammalian Lung

Shows the mammalian respiratory system, focusing on the lung and zooming in on alveoli.

Figure 42.22, page 831, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition


Shows the muscle interactions caused by inhalation and exhalation.

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Atmospheric Pressure

Shows what gases make up the atmosphere and how atmospheric pressure is measured in terms of mmHg.

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Diffusion and Gases

Altitude and Oxygen Partial Pressure

Compares partial pressures of oxygen at various altitudes.

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Help in Oxygen Transportation

A picture of red blood cells. A schematic representation of hemoglobin's quarternary structure.

Unknown source; part of Figure 5.23, page 75, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

How Hemoglobin Helps

Shows the mechanism of cooperativity in enzymes.

Figure 6.17, page 97, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition

Control of Breathing

Shows the interaction that automatically control breathing.

Figure 42.25, page 833, Campbell's Biology, 5th Edition